Summary: Potential voters (citizens age 18+), people registered to vote, and voting in the presidential and midterm elections of 2012, 2014, 2016, 2018, 2020, and 2022. Racial/ethnic detail is only available for Latinos and Asian Americans, imputed based on surnames.
Data source(s): Statewide Database (SWDB); US Census Bureau, Citizen Voting Age Population (CVAP) Special Tabulation from the 2012, 2014, 2016, 2018, 2019, and 2021 American Community Survey 5-Year Summary Files.
Universe: Varies depending on breakdown. All breakdowns are restricted to US citizens age 18 or older.
Methods: Statement of Vote (SOV) data files were downloaded from the SWDB for the 2012, 2014, 2016, 2018, 2020, and 2022 general elections at the SR precinct level. The SR precinct is a consolidated precinct geographic unit constructed for statistical merging purposes by SWDB. Geographic crosswalks between SR precincts and census blocks for each election were also downloaded from the SWDB, and were used to crosswalk the registration and voting data from the SOV files to the 2010 or 2020 census block geographies depending on the election year. Data from 2010 to 2020 were provided in 2010 census block boundaries while 2022 data was structured by 2020 boundaries. The registration and voting data were then aggregated up to the census block group level and data on the size of the Citizen Voting Age Population (CVAP), or US citizens age 18 or older, was merged in. CVAP data are available as special tabulations of the 2012, 2014, 2016, 2018, 2019, and 2021 American Community Survey (ACS) 5-Year Summary Files. Registration, voting, and CVAP data was then aggregated up from the census block group geography to each Atlas geography.
To aggregate the data to the census-defined place (large cities, smaller cities or towns and Census Designated Places) and sub-county (CPUMA) geographies, geographic crosswalks were used that assigned each block group to the census-defined place or CPUMA that contained its internal point, which is a point defined by a particular latitude and longitude that approximates the geographic center of the geography (in this case, the block group). Total registration counts in each year were divided by total CVAP in the corresponding year of the ACS summary file (e.g. total registration in 2012 was divided by total CVAP from the 2012 5-year ACS) for each Atlas geography to derive a measure of registration as a share of CVAP; total votes were divided by total registration in each year to derive a measure of total votes as a share of those registered, and total votes were also divided by total CVAP in the corresponding year of the ACS summary file to derive a measure of total votes as a share of CVAP. It is important to note that while data on registration and voting reflect the actual election years indicated in each chart, data on citizens age 18 or older (CVAP) reflects a five-year average (e.g. data for 2020 represents a 2016-2020 average). While the temporal alignment of the data is imperfect, the degree to which the CVAP data lags the voting and registration data is consistent across election years.
In some instances, rates of registration and voting rates that were derived came out to higher than 100 percent. This could be due partly to the temporal mismatch between the SWDB and CVAP data, partly due to inconsistencies in how data by race/ethnicity were collected between datasets, and/or partly due simply to inconsistencies in the underlying SWDB data itself. To avoid reporting impossible rates, the following edits were made to the data: in cases where the total vote was higher than total registration, total registration was set equal to total votes; subsequently, if total CVAP was found to be less than total registration, total CVAP was set equal to total registration. Overall, these adjustments lead to an average difference in total CVAP from the original values of only 1.6 percent across all years and Atlas geographies. See the methodology page for other relevant notes.
- Racial/ethnic identification of data on registration and voting is only available for Latino and Asian American citizens, and is imputed based on surnames.
- For data CVAP, Latinos include people of Hispanic origin of any race and Asian Americans exclude people of Hispanic origin.
- Data on registration and voting reflect the year indicated in the chart while data on citizens age 18 or older (CVAP) reflects a five-year average (e.g. data for 2020 represents a 2016-2020 average).
- In a small number of cases where the total vote was higher than total registration, total registration was set equal to total votes; subsequently, if total CVAP was found to be less than total registration, total CVAP was set equal to total registration.
- 2020 and 2022 general election data are supplemented with the 2019 and 2021 5-year ACS data respectively due to data availability.