Summary: The share of the population living in neighborhoods with different neighborhood resource levels based on the California Fair Housing Task Force opportunity maps created by the Haas Institute at UC Berkeley. High segregation and poverty neighborhoods are those with poverty rates of at least 30 percent, with high levels of racial segregation and high shares of people-of-color households. Resource levels are based on a comprehensive index of opportunity.
Data Source(s): California Fair Housing Task Force 2019 and 2021 Opportunity Maps; U.S. Census Bureau, 2015 and 2019 American Community Survey 5-year Summary Files.
Universe: All people.
Methods: Data on neighborhood opportunity from the latest 2021 and earlier 2019 versions of the California Fair Housing Task Force Opportunity Mapping project, drawing on data from a range of years between 2010 and 2020, was downloaded from the California State Treasurer website. The 2019 version of the data are expressed at the 2010 census tract level, and the 2021 version is expressed at a hybrid level of geography comprised of the 2010 census tracts and rural block groups. The block group data is generally available in more sparsely population areas of California where the census tracts are large, geographically.
To briefly summarize the neighborhood opportunity methodology, tract level opportunity scores were derived relative to the 9-county Bay Area region using an index based on three domains of indicators: the health and environment domain (e.g. air pollution concentrations, drinking water contaminants, toxic releases from polluting facilities, pesticides, traffic density); the education domain (e.g. math and reading proficiency, student poverty, and high school graduation rates); and the economics domain (e.g. employment rates, job proximity, median home values, poverty rates, and adult educational attainment). A filtering approach was used to assign those identified as having high levels of poverty and racial segregation into a "high segregation & poverty" category. Index scores were assigned to unfiltered tracts and block groups as follows: the top 20 percent of tracts and block groups in terms of the opportunity score were assigned to the "highest resource" category and the next 20 percent were assigned to the "high resource" category. Finally, the remaining tracts and block groups were divided evenly into the “moderate resource” and “low Resource” categories based on their index scores.
Data reported on the Atlas for 2015 is based on combining the 2019 neighborhood opportunity data with the 2015 American Community Survey 5-year Summary File, while data reported for 2019 is based on combining the 2021 neighborhood opportunity data with the 2019 American Community Survey 5-year Summary File. The neighborhood opportunity estimates (at the census tract and/or block group levels of geography) were merged with population data from the relevant American Community Survey 5-year Summary File. Counts of people by race/ethnicity and nativity were then summed up to higher-level Atlas geographies for each of the five neighborhood opportunity categories described above. To aggregate from census tracts and block groups to sub-counties (CPUMAs) and census-defined places (large cities, other cities or towns, and Census Designated Places), we used geographic crosswalks that were created by assigning each 2010 tract/block group to the CPUMA and census-defined place containing the plurality of its 2010 population (from SF1 of the 2010 Census) by census block. See the methodology page for other relevant notes.
Finally, because the American Community Survey 5-year Summary File does not have race by nativity data at the block group level, estimates for block group-level population data were created before aggregating, based on the distribution of immigrants by race at the census tract level.
- For the by race/ethnicity and ranking breakdowns, Latinos include people of Hispanic origin of any race and all other groups exclude people of Hispanic origin.
- For the by nativity breakdown, with the exception of Whites, all racial groups include people of Hispanic origin who self-identify with that racial identity.
- Resource levels are based on two different versions of a comprehensive index of opportunity, one released in 2019 (based on data from the 2010 Decennial Census and additional data from 2012-2018) and an updated version released in 2021 (based on data from the 2010 Decennial Census and additional data from 2014-2020).
- Data reported for on the Atlas for 2015 combines the 2019 neighborhood opportunity data with the 2015 American Community Survey 5-year Summary File, while data reported for 2019 combines the 2021 neighborhood opportunity data with the 2019 American Community Survey 5-year Summary File.
- Counts of people by race/ethnicity and nativity reflect for 2015 and 2019 reflect 2011-2015 and 2015-2019 averages, respectively.
- High segregation and poverty neighborhoods are those where 30% of the population is below the federal poverty line, with high levels of racial segregation and high shares of people-of-color households.
- No data are reported if based on fewer than 100 people.
- Data are only reported for census-defined places (large cities, other cities or towns and Census Designated Places) for which at least three census tracts or block groups were assigned in the geographic crosswalks noted above, or for which one or two tracts or block groups were assigned but the vast majority (at least 80 percent) of the tract or block group population(s) fell within the census-defined place based on 2010 block level population counts.
- No data are available for California as a whole.