Summary: The number and rate (per 100,000 people) of civilians involved in incidents with police in which they sustained serious bodily injury or death, or in which police discharged a firearm at them. Data for 2016-2022 reflect the combined seven-year period while individual year selections only reflect data for that year.
Data Source(s): California Department of Justice, Use of Force Incident Reporting; U.S. Census Bureau, 2020 American Community Survey 5-year Summary File; U.S. Census Bureau, 2017, 2018, 2019, and 2020 American Community Survey 1-year Summary Files; U.S. Census Bureau.
Methods: The Use of Force Incident Reporting data include information on civilians and officers involved in use-of-force incidents. Data is only reported for incidents which result in serious bodily injury or death to anyone involved, or in which a firearm was discharged. Civilian-level records from incidents with police that resulted in serious bodily to the civilian, or which an officer discharged a firearm at them were selected for the years 2016 to 2022 and summed together. Records in which the civilian was not reported to have received force or in which no officer involved was reported to have used force on a civilian were excluded, as were records missing geographic or demographic information. The remaining records were aggregated by race/ethnicity, gender and age of the civilian involved, as well as by consequence of force on the civilian, for each geography. Consequence of force categories reflect the most severe consequence for the civilian in cases where there were multiple consequences, with death being the most severe consequence followed by serious bodily injury (whether a firearm was discharged or not). The third category - gun fired, no or non-serious injury - included cases in which an officer fired a gun at the civilian but it did not result in serious injury or death. For more information on how the data is collected and the what how serious injuries are defined, see here. It is important to note that due to the narrow definition of use-of-force incidents in the underlying dataset, and because 2016 was the first year of data collection and not all agencies reported (despite efforts to provide access to all law enforcement agencies in the state), it does not represent the totality of use of force incidents in California (or the Bay Area). Geographic aggregation was based on the city and county in which the incident took place. Data was aggregated for sub-county (CPUMA) geography using a city-to-CPUMA crosswalk that was created by assigning each city to the CPUMA containing the plurality of its 2010 population (from SF1 of the 2010 Census) by census block. For years 2016-2022, 2021, 2022, data on population by race/ethnicity was merged in from 2016-2020 ACS population data to derive a measure of the number of incidents per 100,000 people. For all the other years (2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020), population data comes from the corresponding ACS year population data. It is important to note that the number of incidents per 100,000 people reflect the total number over the seven-year period of 2016-2022 and are not annual rates unless filtered for individual years. Individual year selections reflect data for that year only. See the methodology page for other relevant notes.
- Latinos include people of Hispanic origin of any race and all other groups exclude people of Hispanic origin.
- Use of force incidents per 100,000 people uses the sum of 2016 to 2022 civilians involved in use-of-force incidents except for individual year selections which only reflect data for that year, and averaged population data for years 2016 through 2022.
- No data is available for California as a whole, sub-counties, or Census Designated Places.